Beauveria bassiana

Mitosporitic fungus:

Previously classified as: Deuteromycetes: Moniliales


NOMENCLATURE:
Approved name:

Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin.

Other names:

Previously known as Botrytis bassiana Balsamo. (White muscardine).


SOURCE:

An isolate of Beauveria bassiana was obtained from a mycosed larva of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)) found in Beauce, France by INRA. A production process was developed by INRA and is now owned by Natural Plant Protection (NPP). Similarly, the Troy isolate was obtained from a boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis (Boheman)) at the USDA-ARS Crop Insect Research Center, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. The three isolates that have been commonly commercialised are Bb 147 - NPP; ATCC 74040 (= ARSEF 3097 = FCI 7744) - Troy; and GHA - Mycotech.


PRODUCTION:

Beauveria bassiana is cultured by semi-solid as well as by solid state fermentation on clay granules.


TARGET PESTS:

Strain Bb 147 is most commonly being used against borers, European Corn borer (Ostrinlo nubilalis)and Asiatic corn borer (O furnacalis Guenee); different strain (GHA) is also being used against whitefly, thrips, aphids and mealybugs; and ATCC 74040 is effective against a range of soft-bodied coleopteran, homopteran and heteropteran pests.


TARGET CROPS:

Corn, Coffee, Cotton and Sugarcane


BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY:

Biology:

The entomopathogen invades the insect body. Fungal conidia become attached to the insect cuticle and, after germination, the hyphae penetrate the cuticle and proliferate in the insect's body. High humidity or free water is essential for conidial germination and infection establishes between 24 and 48 hours. The infected insect may live for three to five days after hyphal penetration and, after death, the conidiophores bearing conidia are produced on cadaver. The fungus is insect specific.


COMMERCIALISATION:

Formulation:

Clay microgranular formulation colonised by sporulating mycelia.

Tradenames:

Dispel

APPLICATION:

Used as foliar sprays. Application rates depend upon the crop and the pests to be controlled. The normal application rate on commodity crops is 750 to 1000 ml of product per hectare, for ornamentals under cover or outdoors 24 to 80 ml per 10 litres and on turf and lawns 32 to 96 ml per 100 square metres.


PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS:

Purity:

Formulations should contain conidia of Beauveria bassiana at a concentration of 2.3 x 107 spores per ml or at least 5 x 108 spores per gram. Viability of the spores is determined by culture on nutrient agar and counting the colonies formed. Efficacy is checked by bioassay with an appropriate insect. Detailed identification of the specific strain in any formulation requires DNA and isoenzyme matching with the registered strain held in a type culture collection.


Storage conditions and shelf-life:

Store in a cool, dry place. Do not freeze and do not allow the product to undergo thermal shock. May be kept for up to one year if stored below 20 °C.


COMPATIBILITY:

The products may be used alone or tank mixed with other products such as sticking agents, insecticidal soaps, emulsifiable oils, insecticides or used with beneficial insects. Do not use with fungicides and wait 48 hours after application before applying fungicides.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET TOXICITY:

Birds:

Oral LD50: (5 days) quail >2,000 mg/kg daily (by gavage).


Fish:

Naturalis-L does not affect fish embryos, larvae or adults. LC50: (31 days) rainbow trout 7,300 mg/litre. EC50: (14 days) Daphnia pulex 4,100 mg/litre. Bees: 30-day dietary and contact studies indicate that Naturalis-L has no significant effect; LC50: (23 days, ingestion) 9,285 mg/kg.


Other beneficial species:

Field application did not result in adverse effect on beneficial insects. 


INDIAN LITERATURE:

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  • Ambetghar,V. 1996. Biological control of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens with entomogenous fungi. Madras Agricultural Journal. 83: (3), 203-204.

  • Ambethgar, V. 1996. Occurrence of the white muscardine fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. on the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guenee). Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 4: (2), 183-184.

  • Ambethgar, V. 1997. Record of white muscardine fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. on rice leaf folder complex from Karaikal, Pondicherry Union Territory (India). Journal of Entomological Research. 21: (2), 197-199.

  • A taste for ticks. African Farming and Food Processing. 1998, No. 14, 11.

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  • Balavenkatasubbaiah, M., Nataraju, B., Baig, M. and Datta, R.K. 1994. Comparative efficacy of different disinfectants against nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and Beauveria bassiana of silkworm Bombyx mori. Indian Journal of Sericulture. 33: (2), 142-145.

  • Bhattacharya, J., Krishnan, N., Chandra, A.K., Sen, S. K. and Saratchandra, B. 1997. Efficacy of three disinfectants on inactivation of nuclear polyhedrosis virus Beauveria bassiana and Nosema bombycis infecting silkworm Bombyx mori L.Environment and Ecology. 15: (3), 493-496.

  • Byrareddy, M.S., Devaiah, M.C., Govindan, R., Narayana- Swamy, T.K. and Shyamala, M.B. 1993. Effect of some disinfectants in prevention of silkworm white muscardine.Current Research University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 22: (6-8), 97-98.

  • Chavan, Shrikant., Chinnaswamy, K.P. and Changalarayappa. 1998.. Silkworm pupal powder as ingredient of culture media of Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. Insect Environment. 4: (1), 21.

  • Devi, K.U., Padmavathi,J., Sharma,H.C.and Seetharama, N. 2001. Laboratory evaluation of the virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates to the sorghum shoot borer Chilo partellus, Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their characterization by RAPD-PCR. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 17: (2), 131-137.

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  • Gindin, G., Barash, I., Raccah, B., Singer, S., Ben-Ze'-ev, I.S., Klein, M., Jenser, G (ed.). and Adam, L. 1996. The potential of some entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents against the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Thysanoptera held at Godollo, Hungary from 28 August to 1 September 1995. Folia Entomologica Hungarica. 62: Suppl., 37-42 .

  • Gloriana, A.S., Raja,N., Seshadri,S., Janarthanan,S. and Ignacimuthu,S. 2000. Pathogenicity of entomopathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and Beauveria bassiana, to the larvae of Spodoptera litura (F.) and Pericallia ricini (F.). Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 18: (3), 235-242.

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  • Haraprasad, N., Niranjana, S.R., Prakash, H.S., Shetty, H.S., Seema, Wahab. and Wahab, S. 2001. Beauveria bassiana - a potential mycopesticide for the efficient control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in India. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 11: (2), 251-260.

  • Haseeb, M. and Murad, H. 1997. Pathogenicity of the entomogenous fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. to insect predators.International Pest Control. 40: (2), 50-51.

  • Haseeb, Masarrat. and Murad, Humayun. 1997. Susceptibility of the predator, Coccinella septempunctata to the entomogenous fungus, Beauveria bassiana.Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 5: (2), 188-219.

  • Haseeb, Masarrat., Srivastava, R.P. and Haseeb, M. 1998. Dose-mortality relationship of entomogenous fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. against mango mealy bug, Drosicha mangiferae (Green). Insect Environment. 4: (3), 74-75.

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  • Hazarika, L.K., Puzari, K.C. and Saikia, D.K. 1998. Seasonal and host-correlated variation in the susceptibility of rice hispa to Beauveria bassiana in the field. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 68: (7), 361-363.

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  • Jayanthi, P.D.K. and Padmavathamma, K. 1996. Cross infectivity and safety of nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuille to pests of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.) and their natural enemies. Journal of Entomological Research. 20: (3), 211-215.

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  • Padmaja, V., Gurvinder, Kaur and Kaur, G. 1998. Relative susceptibility of brinjal spotted beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius) to certain isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Journal of Biological Control. 12: (2), 147-151.

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