Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

Bacterium:

Schizomycetes: Eubacteriales


NOMENCLATURE:

Approved name:

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.


SOURCE:

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis occurs naturally in soil (Serotype H-14, strain SA-3 is widely used for development as an insecticide).


PRODUCTION:

Produced by fermentation, as for otherBtk.


TARGET PESTS:

Only Diptera: e.g. mosquito and blackfly (simuliid) larvae and fungus gnats (Gnatrol).


BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY:

Mode of action:

Insecticide with stomach action as for Btk.

Biology:

As for Btk except that the crystal inclusions derived from Bti are the most insoluble of any Bt crystals, requiring a very high pH (>11) for full solubilisation. Bti produces five different insecticidal proteins and all have dipteran activity although one toxin, the 27kDa cytolytic toxin, appears to synergise the others. The effects of Bti on larvae are as for Btk. Sometimes its effects are more rapid: heavily infested mosquito pools may be dramatically covered by floating, dying larvae within twenty minutes of application of Bti granules. Cannibalising habit of larvae help spread of the infection The spores cause no significant increase in mortality and so spore-free products are marketed to minimise the weight and to suit during aerial application, in contrast to Btk in which the action of spores is significant in some host species.


COMMERCIALISATION:

Formulation:

Sold as aqueous suspensions, briquettes (BR), flowable concentrates, granules (GR), wettable powders (WP) and slow release rings.

Tradenames:

.Aqua Bac XT.


APPLICATION:

Applied hand-held application equipment to water bodies to be treated. Rates of application increase with the age of larvae to be treated and the organic content of the water. Rates between 2 and 4 kg of product per hectare are usual. Spray on the soil surrounding germinating seedlings to control fungus gnats.

PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS:

Purity:

B.thuringiensis subsp. israelensis formulations contain delta-endotoxins with or without spores.

Storage conditions:

Store under cool and dry conditions. Stable for up to two years if stored under recommended conditions.


COMPATIBILITY:

Apply Bti alone and avoide pesticide mixing. Incompatible with strong oxidising agents, acids and bases.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET TOXICITY:

LC50 for water feeder guppies (Toecilia reticulata) >156 mg/litre (as Teknar). LC50 (96 hours) Daphnia pulex >25 mg/litre (technical).

INDIAN LITERATURE:

  • Adams, L.F., Liu, C.L., Macintosh, S.C. and Starnes, R. L. 1996. Diversity and biological activity of Bacillus thuringiensis. In Crop Protection Agents from nature: Natural Products and Analogues, L G Copping (ed.), 360-88, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK.

  • Amalraj, D.D., Sahu, S.S., Jambulingam, P., Doss, P.S.B., Kalyanasundaram, M. and Das, P.K. 2000. Efficacy of aqueous suspension and granular formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Vectobac) against mosquito vectors. Acta Tropica. 75: (2), 243-246.

  • Barjac, H.de. and Sutherland, D. J. (eds.). 1990. Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes and Blackflies: Biochemistry, Genetics Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus, Unwin Hyman, London.

  • Batra, C.P., Mittal, P.K. and Adak, T. 2000. Control of Aedes aegypti breeding in desert coolers and tires by use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis formulation. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 16: (4), 321-323.

  • Becker, N. 1998. Biorational control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes with special emphasis on community participation. Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne. 44: (4), 759.
  • Biswas, D., Ghosh, S.K., Dutta, R.N. and Mukhopadhyay, A.K. 1997. Field trial of Bacticide on larval populations of two species of vector mosquitoes in Calcutta. Indian Journal of Malariology. 34: (1), 37-41.

  • Chitra, S., Narayanan, R.B., Balakrishnan, A., Jayaraman, Kunthala. and Jayaraman, K. 1998: A rapid and specific method for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis strains by indirect immunofluorescence. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 71: (3), 286-287.

  • Dua, V.K., Sharma, S.K., Srivastava, A., Sharma, V.P. and Srivastava, Aruna. 1997. Bioenvironmental control of industrial malaria at Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Hardwar, India results of a nine year study (1987-95). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 13: (3), 278-285.

  • Entwistle, P.F., Cory, J. S., Bailey, M. J. and Higgs, S (eds.). 1993. Bacillus thuringiensis, an Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 311 pages.

  • Fast, P. 1981. The crystal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, in Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980, H D Burges (ed.), Academic Press, London.

  • Kar, I., Eapen, A., Ravindran, K.J., Chandrahas, R.K., Appavoo, N.C., Sadanand, A.V., Dhanraj, B. and Kar, Indranil. 1997. Field evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus, H5a5b and B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, H-14 against the bancroftian filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, Say in Chennai, India. Indian Journal of Malariology. 34: (1), 25-36.

  • King, A.M.L., Gunasekaran, K., Shriram, A.N., Elangovan, A., Narayanan, R.J., Balaraman, K. and Sudarsanam, D. 1997. Efficacy of a microgel formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 35: (1), 62-66.

  • Kumar, A., Sharma, V.P., Sumodan, P.K. and Thavaselvam, D. 1998. Field trials of biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis strain 164 and the larvivorous fish Aplocheilus blocki against Anopheles stephensi for malaria control in Goa, India. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 14: (4), 457-462.

  • Kumar, A., Sharma, V.P., Sumodan, P.K. and Thavaselvam, D. 1999. Anopheles stephensi build-up and accelerated malaria transmission in the post bio-control intervention phase in Candolim PHC of Goa, India Goa. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 23: (1), 41-44.

  • Manonmani, A.M. and Hoti, S.L. 1995. Field efficacy of indigenous strains of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b against Anopheles subpictus larvae. Tropical Biomedicine. 12: (2), 141-146.

  • Pandian, R.S. and Manoharan, A.C. 2000. Evaluation of VectoBac(C) 12 AS against the urban mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Insect Environment. 6: (3), 111.

  • Prakash, Anil., Bhattacharyya, D.R., Mohapatra, P.K., Mahanta, J., Prakash, A. and Goel, S.C. 1998. Studies on laboratory and field efficacy evaluation of a biocide formulation in district Dibrugarh (Assam). Advances in medical entomology & human welfare. No. 1 Supplement, 21-27.

  • Shukla, R.P., Kohli, V.K. and Ojha, V.P. 1997. Larvicidal efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus H-5a,5b and B. thuringiensis var. israelensis H-14 against malaria vectors in Bhabar area, District Naini Tal, U.P. Indian Journal of Malariology. 34: (4), 208-212

  • Srivastava, R., Tilak, V.W., Mukherjee, S. and Yadav, J.D. 1996. Field trial of Bacillus thuringiensis varisraelensis pellet formulation in the control of mosquitoes. Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 52: (4), 233-235.

  • Surges, H.D. and Jones, K.A. 1989. Formulation of bacteria, viruses and protozoa to control insects, in Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides: Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments, H D Burges (ed.), 33-127, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordecht, the Netherlands.

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