Bacillus sphaericus

Bacterium:

Schizomycetes: Eubacteriales


NOMENCLATURE:

Approved name:

Bacillus sphaericus.


SOURCE:

Bacillus sphaericus is found widely in soil substrate available nature and selected because of its effective control of mosquito larvae.


PRODUCTION:

Bacillus sphaericus is produced commercially by fermentation as for Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.


TARGET PESTS:

Mosquito larvae. Particularly active against Culex spp.


TARGET CROPS:

Used for urban Pest Management.


BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY:

Mode of action:

Bacillus sphaericus produces parasporal, proteinaceous, crystal inclusion bodies during sporulation. Upon ingestion, these are insecticidal to mosquito larvae in the same way as Btk is to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.

Biology:

The crystal inclusions are mosquito larva specific. Because they have to be ingested and then processed within the insect's gut, they are often slow-acting (in comparison to conventional chemicals).. It is active against mosquito larvae under a wide range of conditions including extended residual activity in highly organic aquatic environments. sphaericus has a mode of action similar to that of thuringiensis Berliner. It should be applied from first instar up to early fourth instar, with toxic symptoms often appearing within an hour of ingestion by susceptible species. The bacterium is said to recycle in the aquatic environment and this is thought to be a consequence of proliferation in susceptible insects, cannibalism and release into the water.

Efficacy:

Very effective when used against mosquito larvae in still water, even in the presence of high levels of organic matter. Light instability can cause problems if exposed to high intensities. Rapidly hydrolysed under even mild alkaline conditions. Sphaericus is more effective than Bti for use in slow-release formulations designed to control mosquitoes.

COMMERCIALISATION:

Formulation:

Formulated as water soluble granules (SG).

Tradenames:

SPIC Biomass.


APPLICATION:

Applied by hand-held application equipment to water bodies. Rates of application depend upon the stage of larvae to be treated and the organic content of the water. Rates between 2 and 4 kg of product per hectare are recommended, with the highest rates used against large larvae and in highly polluted water.


PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS:

Purity:

Prepared as for Btk. The commercial product contains living spores of sphaericus plus the protein endotoxin. Efficacy can be determined by bioassay on Culex larvae in the laboratory.

Storage conditions and shelf-life:

Store in cool, dry, stableconditions. If stored under cool, dry, stable conditions, the formulated product will remain viable for 2 years.


COMPATIBILITY:

Compatible with other major pesticides except copper-based fungicides or algal control agents.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET TOXICITY:

Sphaericus has shown no adverse effects in approved field use on non-target organisms.

INDIAN LITERATURE:

  • Ansari, M.A., Sharma, V.P., Mittal, P.K. and Razdan, R.K. 1995. Efficacy of two flowable formulations of Bacillus sphaericus against larvae of mosquitoes. Indian Journal of Malariology. 32: (2), 76-84.

  • Becker, N. 1998. Biorational control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes with special emphasis on community participation. Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne. 44: (4), 759.

  • Bhattacharya, P.R. 1998. Microbial control of mosquitoes with special emphasis on bacterial control. Indian Journal of Malariology. 35: (4), 206-224.

  • Chitra, S., Narayanan, R.B., Balakrishnan, A., Kunthala, Jayaraman. and Jayaraman, K. 1998. A rapid and specific method for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis strains by indirect immunofluorescence. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 71: (3), 286-287.

  • Dash, A.P. and Hazra, R.K. 1995.A small scale field experiment on comparative efficacy of three mosquito larvicides in a filarial endemic locality of Orissa, India.Tropical Biomedicine. 12: (1), 69-72.

  • Dua, V.K., Sharma, S.K., Srivastava, A., Sharma, V.P. and Aruna, Srivastava. 1997. Bioenvironmental control of industrial malaria at Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Hardwar, India results of a nine-year study (1987-95). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 13: (3), 278-285.

  • Gunasekaran, K., Narayanan, R.J., Shriram, A.N., Elangovan, A. and Balaraman, K. 1998. Efficacy of a Bacillus sphaericus formulation as influenced by the quality of Culex quinquefasciatus breeding waters. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 108: December, 260-264.

  • Gunasekaran, K., Vijayan, V., Shriram, A.N., Subramanian, S. and Balaraman, K. 1997. Development of alginate-based slow release formulation of Bacillus sphaericus for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 28: (1), 203-207.

  • Kant, R., Pandey, S.D., Sharma, S.K. and Rajni, Kant. 1996. Role of biological agents for the control of mosquito breeding in rice fields. Indian Journal of Malariology. 33: (4), 209-215.

  • Kar, I., Eapen, A., Ravindran, K.J., Chandrahas, R.K., Appavoo, N.C., Sadanand, A.V., Dhanraj, B. and Indranil, Kar. 1997. Field evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus, H5a5b and B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, H-14 against the bancroftian filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, Say in Chennai, India. Indian Journal of Malariology. 34: (1), 25-36.

  • Kumar, A., Sharma, V.P., Thavaselvam, D., Sumodan, P.K., Kamat, R.H., Audi, S.S. and Surve, B.N. 1996. Control of Culex quinquefasciatus with Bacillus sphaericus in Vasco City, Goa. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 12: (3), Part 1, 409-413.

  • Kumar, A., Thavaselvam, D., Fernandes, F.S. and Sharma, V.P. 1993. Community participation and intersectoral cooperation in malaria control in Panaji, Goa. Community participation in malaria control. 181-191.

  • Mala, S.R. and Solayappan, A.R. 2001. Screening of certain effective microbial insecticides for the control of sugarcane early shoot borer larvae Chilo infuscatellus Snell. Cooperative Sugar. 32: (8), 631-633.

  • Manonmani, A.M. and Hoti, S.L. 1995. Field efficacy of indigenous strains of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and H-5a5b against Anopheles subpictus larvae.Tropical Biomedicine. 12: (2), 141-146.

  • Mariappan, T., Amalraj, D.D., Doss, P.S.B., Sahu, S.S., Jambulingam, P., Somachary, N., Reddy, C.M.R., Kalyanasundaram, M., Das, P.K. and Bhoopathi-Doss, S.S. 1999. Field evaluation of Spicbiomoss, a biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus sphaericus against immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus & Anopheles species. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 110: October, 128-132.

  • Mittal, P.K., Adak, T. and Sharma, V.P. 1998. Variations in the response to Bacillus sphaericus toxins in different strains of Anopheles stephensi Liston. Indian Journal of Malariology. 35: (4), 178-184.

  • Poopathi, S. 2000. Comparative estimation of activity of two marker enzymes for determining the quality of brush border membrane fractions for in vitro binding assays in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquito larvae. Journal of Entomological-Research. 24: (3), 199-205.

  • Poopathi, S., Mani, T.R., Baskaran, G. and Kabilan, L. 1999. Investigations on cross-resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis H14 in the Bancroftian filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus resistant to Bacillus sphaericus. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 23: (2), 121-124.

  • Poopathi, S., Mani, T.R., Rao, D.R., Baskaran, G., Lalitha, Kabilan. And Kabilan, L. 1999. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on the ultrastructural changes in the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Entomological Research. 23: (4), 347-357.

  • Poopathi, S., Mani, T.R., Rao, D.R., Baskaran, G., Lalitha, Kabilan. and Kabilan, L. 1999. Evaluation of synergistic interaction between Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against Culex quinquefasciatus resistant and susceptible to B. sphaericus 1593 M. Journal-of-Ecobiology. 11: (4) 289-298.

  • Prakash, Anil., Bhattacharyya, D.R., Mohapatra, P.K., Mahanta, J., Prakash, A. and Goel, S.C. 1998. Studies on laboratory and field efficacy evaluation of a biocide formulation in district Dibrugarh (Assam). Advances in medical entomology & human welfare. No. 1 Supplement, 21-27.

  • Rippere, K.E., Johnson, J.L. and Yousten, A.A. 1997. DNA similarities among mosquito-pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 47: (1), 214-216.

  • Shanmugavelu, M., Sritharan, V. and Jayaraman, K. 1995.Polymerase chain reaction and non-radioactive gene probe based identification of mosquito larvicidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus and monitoring of B. sphaericus 1593M, released in the environment. Journal of Biotechnology. 39: (2), 99-106.

  • Sharma, S.N., Sharma, T and Prasad, H. 1998. Impact of Spherix (Bacillus sphaericus B-101, serotype H5a, 5b) spraying on the control of mosquito breeding in rural areas of Farrukhabad district, Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Malariology. 35: (4), 185-196.

  • Shukla, R.P., Kohli, V.K.and Ojha, V.P. 1997. Larvicidal efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus H-5a,5b and B. thuringiensis var. israelensis H-14 against malaria vectors in Bhabar area, District Naini Tal, U.P. Indian Journal of Malariology. 34: (4), 208-212.

  • Sundararaj, R. and Raghunatha-Rao, D. 1993. Field evaluation of a microgel droplet formulation of Bacillus sphaericus 1593M (Biocide-S) against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles subpictus in South India. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 24: (2), 363-368.

  • Yadav, R.S., Sharma, V.P. and Upadhyay, A.K. 1997. Field trial of Bacillus sphaericus strain B-101 (serotype H5a,5b) against filariasis and Japanese encephalitis vectors in India. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 13: (2), 158-163.

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