Pseudomonas fluorescens

Biological insecticide

Bacterium:

Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae

NOMENCLATURE:
Approved name:

Pseudomonos fluorescens (Trevisan) Migula.

SOURCE:

A naturally and widely occurring bacterium. A strain that was naturally non-ice nucleating was originally isolated and registered in the USA for suppression of frost damage to fruit crops. Other strains with anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activity have been isolated and commercialized in the USA and India


PRODUCTION:

Produced byfermentation.


TARGET PESTS:

Soil-borne diseases caused by  Fusarium and Rhizoctonia spp..


TARGET CROPS:

Fruit tree crops, particularly pears and apples, cotton and vegetables.


BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY:


Mode of action:

Bacteria and fungal propagules on the leaves of crops often serve as nucleationsites for ice formation and ice crystals often form when they are present and the temperature falls below freezing, with resulting damage to the leaf.If these are replaced on plant leaves with competitive antagonists that lack the ice-nucleating protein, frost is prevented, even at temperatures as low as -5 °C. Other strains of Pseudomonos fluorescens are antagonistic to foliar or rhizosphere bacteria and fungi through the production of siderophores and antibiotics.


COMMERCIALISATION:


Formulation:

Sold as seed treatments or WPs of bacterial spores.


APPLICATION:

Soil-borne pathogens are controlled with the use of seed treatments or hopper-box applications and foliar pathogens by spray applications. Fire blight sprays should be applied before flowering. Apply non-nucleating bacteria to foliage of tree crops and vegetables before the temperature falls below freezing. A single application will protect from frost damage to temperatures as low as -5 °C for up to two months. The bacterium must be established on the foliage before freezing temperatures occur.


PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS:


Storage conditions:

Store in a cool, dry place in a sealed container. Do not expose to extremes of temperature or direct sunlight.

Shelf-life:

If stored under recommended conditions, the product remains viable for a year.


COMPATIBILITY:

It is unusual to apply fluorescenswith other chemical treatments.


MAMMALIAN TOXICITY:

There are no records of allergic or other adverse effects following use of fluorescens. It is regarded as being of low mammalian toxicity.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET TOXICITY:

P. fluorescens. occurs widely in nature and is not expected to have any adverse effects on non-target organisms.


INDIAN LITERATURE:

  • Anith, K.N., Manomohandas, T.P., Jayarajan, M., Vasanthakumar, K. and Aipe, K.C. 2000.Integration of soil solarization and biological control with a fluorescent Pseudomonas sp.for controlling bacterial wilt Ralstonia solanacearum (E. F. Smith) Yabuuchi et al. of ginger. Journal of Biological Control. 14: (1), 25-29.
  • Bhattacharya, I. and Pramanik, M. 1998. Effect of different antagonist rhizobacteria and neem products on clubroot of crucifers. Indian Phytopathology. 51: (1), 87-90.
  • Bora, L.C., Minku, Das., Das, B.C. and Das, M. 2000. Influence of microbial antagonists and soil amendments on bacterial wilt severity and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 70: (6), 390-392.
  • De, R.K. and Chaudhary, R.G. 1999. Biological and chemical seed treatment against lentil wilt. Lens Newsletter. 26: (1-2), 28-31.
  • Hiremath, P.C., Kulkarni, S.A., Radder, G.D.(ed.)., Gidnavar, V.S.(ed.)., Chittapur, B.M.(ed.)., Itnal, C.J.(ed.)., Patil, B.N.(ed.). and Babalad, H.B. 1998. Production of biocontrol agents for plant pathogens. Organics in sustaining soil fertility and productivity. 291-293.
  • Johnson, I. and Palaniswami, A. 1999. Phytophthora tuber rot of cassava - a new record in India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 29: (3), 323-332.
  • Jubina, P.A. and Girija, V.K. 1998. Antagonistic rhizobacteria for management of Phytophthora capsici, the incitant of foot rot of black pepper. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 28: (2), 147-153.
  • Kalaimani, T. 2000.Biological control of red rot of sugar cane caused by (Colletotrichum falcatum Went). Indian Sugar. 50: (8), 489-492.
  • Khan, M.R. and Khan, S.M. 2001. Biomanagement of Fusarium wilt of tomato by the soil application of certain phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. International Journal of Pest Management. 47: ( 3), 227-231.
  • Krishnamurthy, K. and Gnanamanickam, S.S. 1998. Biological control of rice blast by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf7-14: evaluation of a marker gene and formulations.Biological Control. 13: (3), 158-165.
  • Mala, S.R. and Solayappan, A.R. 2001. Screening of certain effective microbial insecticides for the control of sugarcane early shoot borer larvae Chilo infuscatellus Snell.Cooperative Sugar. 32: (8), 631-633.
  • Mastan, S.A. and Qureshi, T.A. 2001.Role of bacteria in the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fishes. Journal of Environmental Biology. 22: (3), 187-192.
  • Meena, B., Marimuthu, T., Vidhyasekaran, P. and Velazhahan, R. 2001. Biological control of root rot of groundnut with antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 108: (4), 369-381.
  • Meena, B., Ramamoorthy, V., Marimuthu, T. and Velazhahan, R. 2000.Pseudomonas fluorescens mediated systemic resistance against late leaf spot of groundnut. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 30: (2), 151-158.
  • Natarajan, S., Kalaimani, T. and Rajakumar, M. 1997. Management of sugarcane red rot disease in Tamil Nadu - results of some trials. Indian Sugar. 47: (6), 413-418.
  • Nautiyal, C.S. 1997. Selection of chickpea-rhizosphere-competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI1303 antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Pythium sp. Current Microbiology. 35: (1), 52-58.
  •  Parakhia, A.M., Akbari, L.F., Jugnu, Antharia., Vaishnav, M.U. and Antharia, J. 1998. Comparative evaluation of bio-agents and seed dressing fungicides against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot of groundnut. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 23: (2), 61-65.
  • Pradeep, Kumar., Sood, A.K. and Kumar, P. 2001. Integration of antagonistic rhizobacteria and soil solarization for the management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Indian Phytopathology. 54: (1), 12-15.
  • Qureshi, T.A., Mastan, S.A., Prasad, Y., Chauhan, R., Dubey, R.K and, Chopade, R. 1999.Bacteriological investigation on EUS affected Channa striatus (Bloch). Journal of Ecobiology. 11: (1), 71-79.
  • Ramakrishnan, S., Sivakumar, C.V., Dhawan, S.C.(ed.). and Kaushal, K.K. 1999. Biological control of rice root nematode with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Proceedings of national symposium on rational approaches in nematode management for sustainable agriculture, Anand, India, 23-25 November, 1998. 43-46.
  • Ramakrishnan, S., Sivakumar,C.V., Poornima, K. 1998. Management of rice root nematode, Hirschmanniella gracilis (de Man) Luc & Goodey with Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. Journal of Biological Control. 12: (2), 135-141.
  • Ramesh, K.R. 2000. Inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani the causal agent for collar rot of teak (Tectona grandis) seedlings by fungicides and biocontrol agents in in-vitro conditions. Indian Forester. 126: (3), 284-288.
  • Ravi, S., Valluvaparidasan, V., Sabitha, Doraiswamy., Jayalakshmi, C. and Doraiswamy, S. 2000.Production of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum free French bean seeds. Legume Research. 23: (3), 170-173.
  • Santhi, A., Rajeshwari, Sundarababu., Sivakumar, C.V., Sundarababu, R., Dhawan, S.C.(ed.) and Kaushal, K.K. 1998. Field evaluation of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens for the management of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Proceedings of national symposium on rational approaches in nematode management for sustainable agriculture, Anand, India, 23-25 November, 1999, 38-42.
  • Shaid, Ahamad., Mukesh, Srivastava., Ahamad, S. and Srivastana, M. 2000. Biological control of dry root rot of chickpea with plant products and antagonistic microorganisms. Annals of Agricultural Research. 21: (3), 450-451.
  • Shanthi, A., Rajeswari, S., Sivakumar, C.V. and Mehta, U.K. 1998. Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Migula) for the control of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera Linn.). Nematology: challenges and opportunities in 21st Century. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of Afro-Asian Society of Nematologists (TISAASN), Sugarcane Breeding Institute (ICAR), Coimbatore, India, April 16-19, 1998. 203-206.
  • Singh, U.P., Prithiviraj, B., Singh, K.P. and Sarma, B.K. 2000. Control of powdery mildew (Erysiphe pisi) of pea (Pisum sativum) by combined application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and Neemazal TM. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 107: (1), 59-66.
  • Sivakumar, G. and Narayanaswamy, N.T. 1998. Biological control of sheath blight of rice with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Oryza. 35: (1), 57-60.
  • Sivakumar, G., Sharma, R.C. and Rai, S.N. 2000. Biocontrol of banded leaf and sheath blight of maize by peat based Pseudomonas fluorescens formulation. Indian Phytopathology. 53: (2), 190-192.
  • Umesha, S., Dharmesh, S.M., Shetty, S.A., Krishnappa, M. and Shetty, H.S. 1998. Biocontrol of downy mildew disease of pearl millet using Pseudomonas fluorescens. Crop Protection. 17: (5), 387-392.
  • Vanitha, S. 1998.Control of ragi blast with selected fungicides and plant products. Madras Agricultural Journal. 85: (5-6), 336-337.
  • Vanitha, S. and Ramachandram, K. 1999.Management of late blight disease of tomato with selected fungicides and plant products. South Indian Horticulture. 47: (1-6), 306-307.
  • Vidhyasekaran, P. and Muthamilan, M. 1999.Evaluation of a powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 for control of rice sheath blight. Biocontrol Scienceand Technology. 9: (1), 67-74.  

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