Trichodermo harzianum

Biological insecticide

Mitosporitic Fungus:

Previously classified as: Deuteromycetes: Moniliales



NOMENCLATURE:

Approved name:

Trichoderma harzianumTul.

Other names:

Previously known as Trichoderma lignorum(Tode) Harz.

SOURCE:

Trichoderma harzianumoccurs widely in nature in soil substrate and this is being commercialization because of its ability to compete with phytopathogenic fungi and produce toxins.

PRODUCTION:

Trichoderma harzianumis produced  commercially by fermentation as well as on solid substrate.


TARGET PESTS:

Recommended for the control of soil-inhabiting  Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium,  Sclerotinia and Botrytis species.


TARGET CROPS:

Recommended for use on crops, vegetables and vines.


BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY:

Mode of action:

Competes in the soil for nutrients and rhizosphere dominance with phyto-pathogenic fungi. In presence of sufficient organic carbon it produces enzymes having lytic effect on target fungi and in contrast in adverse conditions it produces toxins which are equally harmful. 


Biology:

Trichoderma harzianumis a widely distributed member of the soil microflora and exerts its effect by competing for nutrients and producing toxins against phytopathogenic species.


COMMERCIALISATION:

Formulation:

Formulated as an MG. CFU (2 * 107 /gm)


APPLICATION:

Apply to soil or compost FYM heap using conventional application equipment. Ensure that the soil is moist and that the temperature is at least 12 °C.


PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS:

Purity:

The product contains only spores of Trichoderma harzianum.Viability of the formulation is determined by plating the product out on agar and counting the number of colonies formed after incubation in the laboratory for 48 hours.

Storage conditions:

Store under dry, stable conditions as unopened packs.


Shelf-life:

Vacuum packs maintain product viability for one year if stored at 20 °C and if unopened.


COMPATIBILITY:

Not to be used with most of fungicidal treatment except with Vitavax.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET TOXICITY:

Acute oral LD50 mallard ducks and bobwhite quail >2,000 mg/kg. LC50 (96 hours) zebra fish 1.23 x 105 colony forming units (cfu)/ml. LC50 (10 days) aphnia pulex1.6 x 104 cfu/ml. Trichoderma harzianumwas not toxic to honeybees at 1,000 pp

INDIAN LITERATURE

  • Baby, U.I. 1998.Biocontrol potential of fungicide resistant mutants of Trichoderma spp. Indian Journal of Microbiology. 38: (3), 165-166.
  • Biswas, K.K. 1999. Screening of isolates of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai for their relative biocontrol efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. udum and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 7: (2), 125-130.
  • Bora, L.C., Minku, Das., Das, B.C. and Das, M. 2000. Influence of microbial antagonists and soil amendments on bacterial wilt severity and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 70: (6), 390-392.
  • Chakrabarti, D.K., Kumar, R. and Prasad, J. 1998. Stem rot of Psoralea corylifolia and its biological control. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 68: (6), 333-335.
  • Daljeet, Singh., Kapur, S.P., Kuldip, Singh., Singh, D. and Singh, K. 2000. Management of citrus scab caused by Elsinoe fawcettii. Indian Phytopathology. 53: (4), 461-467.
  • De, R.K. and Chaudhary, R.G. 1999. Biological and chemical seed treatment against lentil wilt. Lens-Newsletter. 26: (1-2), 28-31.
  • De, R.K., Chaudhary, R.G. and Naimuddin. 1996. Comparative efficacy of bio-control agents and fungicides for controlling chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 66: (6), 370-373.
  • Deore, P.B. and Sawant, D.M. 2000. Management of guar powdery mildew by Trichoderma spp. culture filtrates. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. publ. 2001, 25: (3), 253-254.
  • Dinakaran, D., Ramakrishnan, G., Sridhar, R. and Jeyarajan, R. 1995. Management of sesamum root rot with biocontrol agents. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 12: (2), 262-263.
  • Dutta, P. and Das, B.C. 1999. Control of Rhizoctonia solani in soybean (Glycine max) by farmyard manure culture of Trichoderma harzianum. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 69: (8), 596-598.
  • Ebenezar, E.G., Alice, D. and Sivaprakasam, K. 1996. Biological control of damping off disease in mustard caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Journal of Ecobiology. 8: (1), 55-57.
  • Gangadharaswamy, M., Lokesh, S. and Rai, V.R. 1997. Impact of Phomopsis vexans on seed quality of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and its management in vitro. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases. 15: (1), 43-51.
  • Hazarika, D.K. and Das, K.K. 1998. Biological management of root rot of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Plant Disease Research. 13: (2), 101-105.
  • Hegde, G. and Anahosur, K.H. 1998. Integrated management of foot rot of black pepper. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 11: (1), 78-82.
  • Jayaraj, J. and Ramabadran, R. 1999. Effect of moisture levels on the survival of Trichoderma harzianum in soil. Indian Phytopathology. 52: (2), 188-189.
  • Jayaraj, J. and Ramabadran, R. 1999. Rhizobium - Trichoderma interaction in vitro and in vivo. Indian Phytopathology. 52: (2), 190-192.
  • Jisha, M.S. and Alagawadi, A.R. 1996. Nutrient uptake and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) inoculated with phosphate solubilizing bacteria and cellulolytic fungus in a cotton stalk amended Vertisol .Microbiological Research. 151: (2), 213-217.
  •    Johnson, I. and Palaniswami, A. 1999. Phytophthora tuber rot of cassava - a new record in India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 29: (3), 323-332.
  • Jubina, P.A. and Girija, V.K. 1998. Antagonistic rhizobacteria for management of Phytophthora capsici, the incitant of foot rot of black pepper. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 28: (2), 147-153.
  • Kalaimani, T. 2000. Biological control of red rot of sugar cane caused by (Colletotrichum falcatum Went).Indian Sugar. 50: (8), 489-492.
  • Kanth, A.K., Gowda, M.V.C. and Lingaraju, S. 2000. Role of partial resistance in integrated management of stem and pod rots in groundnut. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 13: (3), 726-728.
  • Khan, M.R. and Gupta, J. 1998. Antagonistic efficacy of Trichoderma species against Macrophomina phaseolina on eggplant. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 105: (4), 387-393.
  • Krishnamurthy, J., Samiyappan, R., Vidhyasekaran, P., Nakkeeran, S., Rajeswari, E., Raja, J.A.J. and Balasubramanian, P. 1999. Efficacy of Trichoderma chitinasesagainst Rhizoctonia solani, the rice sheath blight pathogen. Journal of Biosciences. 24: (2), 207-213.
  • Madhumita, Choudhury., Sen, C. and Choudhury, M. 1999. Studies on the morphological variations and cultural identity among a few indigenous isolates of Trichoderma spp. Journal of Interacademicia. 3: (3-4), 239-252.
  • Mahanty, B., Roy, J.K., Dasgupta, B., Chitreshwar, Sen and Sen, C. 2000. Relative efficacy of promising fungicides and biocontrol agent Trichoderma in the management of foot rot of betelvine .Journal of Plantation Crops. 28: (3), 179-184.
  • Mesta, R.K., Amaresh, Y.S. 2000. Biological control of Sclerotium wilt of sunflower. Plant Disease Research. 15: (2), 202-203.
  • Mohanan, C., Nair, K.S.S.,Sharma, J.K.(ed.). and Varma, R.V. 1996. Epidemiology and control of Rhizoctonia web blight of bamboos. Impact of diseases and insect pests in tropical forests. Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium, Peechi, India, 23-26 November 1993. 169-185.
  • Natarajan, S, T. and Raj., Kalaimani akumar, M. 1997. Management of sugarcane red rot disease in Tamil Nadu - results of some trials. Indian Sugar. 47: (6), 413-418.
  • Nayak, B.K. 1997. Air and phylloplane mycoflora of Corchorus olitorius L. and C. capsularis L. Journal of Palynology. 33: (1-2), 227-240.
  • Parakhia, A.M., Akbari, L.F., Jugnu, Antharia., Vaishnav, M.U. and Antharia, J. 1998.Comparative evaluation of bio-agents and seed dressing fungicides against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot of groundnut. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 23: (2), 61-65.
  • Patel, S.T. and Anahosur, K.H. 1998. Rhizosphere microflora of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under irrigated conditions as influenced by various soil treatments. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 11: (2), 394-398.
  • Prasad, R.D. and Rangeshwaran, R. 2000 Effect of soil application of a granular formulation of Trichoderma harzianum on Rhizoctonia solani incited seed rot and damping-off of chickpea. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 30: (2), 216-220.
  • Priya, Rani., Ashok, Aggarwal., Mehrotra, R.S., Rani, P. and Aggarwal, A. 1999. Growth responses in Acacia nilotica inoculated with VAM fungi (Glomus mosseae), Rhizobium sp. and Trichoderma harzianum. Indian Phytopathology. 52: (2), 151-153.
  • Raguchander, T., Rajappan, K. and Samiappan, R. 1997. Evaluating methods of application of biocontrol agent in the control of mungbean root rot. Indian Phytopathology. 50: (2), 229-234.
  • Rao, S.K.T. and Sitaramaiah, K. 2000.Management of collar rot disease (Aspergillus niger) in groundnut with Trichoderma spp. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 30: (2), 221-224.
  • Revathi, G., Mala, S.R., Vadivelu, M., Muthukumarasamy, R. and Solayappan, A.R. 1997. An in vitro study for testing the antagonistic effect of Trichoderma viride against Colletotrichum falcatum. Cooperative Sugar. 28: (6), 447-449.
  • Sanjhev, Sharma., Dohroo, N.P. and Sharma, S. 1997.Management of ginger yellows through organic amendment, fungicide seed treatment and biological methods. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal. 21: (2), 29-30.
  • Sarode, S.V. and Sonalkar, V.U. 2001.Comparative performance of biopesticides and insecticides on pigeonpea crop. Shashpa. 8: (1), 85-87.
  • Sawant, I.S., Sawant, S.D. and Nanaya, K.A. 1995. Biological control of Phytophthora root-rot of coorg mandarin (Citrus reticulata) by Trichoderma species grown on coffee waste. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 65: (11), 842-846.
  • Sharma, B.K. and Basandrai, A.K. 2000.Effectiveness of some fungicides and biocontrol agents for the management of Karnal bunt of wheat. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 30: (1), 76-78.
  • Singh, R.S., Mann, S.S., Anuradha, Jindal., Parminder, Kaur., Jindal, A. and Kaur, P. 1995.Variation in isolates of Trichoderma harzianum from Punjab soil. Plant Disease Research. 10: (1), 10-15.
  • Sinha, A., Singh, S.K. and Qaisar, J. 1999. Seed mycoflora of French bean and its control by means of fungicides. Tropenlandwirt. 100: (1), 59-67.
  • Sitansu, Pan., Ghosh, S.K. and Pan, S. 1997. Antagonistic potential of some soil fungi on Phytophthora colocasiae Racib. Journal of Mycopathological Research. 35: (2), 153-157.
  • Thakur, V.S. and Sharma, R.D. 1999. Effect of urea on microbial degradation of apple leaf litter and its relationship to the inhibition of pseudothecial development of Venturia inaequalis. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 69: (2), 147-151.
  • Ushamalini, C., Rajappan, K., and Kousalya, Gangadharan. 1997. Control of cowpea wilt by non-chemical means. Plant Disease Research. 12: (2), 122-129.
  • Wuike, R.V., Shingare, V.S. and Dawane, P.N. 1998. Biological control of wilt of sesame caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. sesami. Journal of Soils and Crops. 8: (1), 103-104.
  • Yogendra, Singh. and Singh, Y. 1998. Biological control of Sclerotinia rot of rapeseed and mustard caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease Research . 13: (2), 144-146.

FAQs      Related Links    Employment Opportunities     Disclaimer     Sitemap     Feedback

Copyright © 2009 National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, Indian Council of Agricultural Research,

an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agriculture Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
LBS Building, IARI, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110 112. INDIA

Developed and Maintained by ARIS Cell, NCIPM